Research Relevant to Short-Chain PFAS

A robust body of research has been conducted on poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), not only by industry, but also by universities, government agencies and independent laboratories. A decade ago, all of the FluoroCouncil members committed to the 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program, a global partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and industry based on voluntary corporate goals to reduce human and environmental exposure to PFOA and related long-chain fluorinated substances. The Program led to the virtual elimination of those chemicals from facility emissions and product content. To continue to meet the critical performance properties provided by PFAS, the FluoroCouncil member companies developed alternatives, including short-chain PFASs with improved environmental and health profiles.

These short-chain substances are well studied. Significant toxicity and environmental data on the products themselves, the raw materials used to produce them, and the associated degradation products has been developed and provided to regulators globally as part of their chemical review processes. The data support the conclusion that the short-chain PFASs studied are not expected to harm human health or the environment. Compared to the long-chains, the short-chain substances are eliminated more rapidly from the body and are less toxic.

Below is a compilation of peer-reviewed publically available literature that provides data relevant to the short chain PFASs. The literature was compiled by the FluoroCouncil, and much of it is summarized in a 2014 report by ENVIRON, “Assessment of POP Criteria for Specific Short-Chain Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances” and a 2016 Ramboll Environ compendium to that report. Those reports concluded that none of the substances assessed meet the Stockholm Convention criteria for persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

In addition, FluoroCouncil member companies that have unpublished study data on short-chain substances provide that data on their respective websites:

Please contact the FluoroCouncil if you have any questions about the information contained here. This site is developed and maintained by the FluoroCouncil. This information is updated on a regular basis, but may not be comprehensive.

Environmental Data
Toxicology/Risk Assessment

Environmental Data

Ahrens L, Barber JL, Xie Z, and Ebinghaus R. 2009. Longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in the surface water of the Atlantic Ocean. Environ Sci Technol 43:3122-3127.

Ahrens L, Gerwinski W, Theobald N, and Ebinghaus R. 2010. Sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea: Evidence from their spatial distribution in surface water. Mar Pollut Bull 60:255-260.

Ahrens, L., Norström, K., Viktor, T., Cousins, A. P., & Josefsson, S. (2015). Stockholm Arlanda Airport as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to water, sediment and fish, 129, 33–38.

Ahrens L. 2011. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the aquatic environment: a review of their occurrence and fate. J Environ Monit 13:20-31.

Ahrens L, Shoeib M, Vento SD, Codling G, and Halsall C. 2011. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the Canadian Arctic atmosphere. Environ Chem 8:399-406.

Ahrens L, Shoeib M, Harner T, Lee SC, Guo R, and Reiner EJ. 2011. Wastewater treatment plant and landfills as sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds to the atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 45:8098-8105.

Anumol, T., Dagnino, S., Vandervort, D. R., & Snyder, S. A. (2016). Transformation of Polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes. Chemosphere, 144, 1780–7. 

Appleman, T. D., Higgins, C. P., Quiñones, O., Vanderford, B. J., Kolstad, C., Zeigler-Holady, J. C., … ER, D. (2014). Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems. Water Research, 51, 246–55.

Armitage JM, MacLeod M, and Cousins IT. 2009. Comparative assessment of the global fate and transport pathways of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorocarboxylates (PFCs) emitted from direct sources. Environ Sci Technol 43:5830-5836.

Arvaniti, O. S., Asimakopoulos, A. G., Dasenaki, M. E., Ventouri, E. I., Stasinakis, A. S., & Thomaidis, N. S. (2014). Simultaneous determination of eighteen perfluorinated compounds in dissolved and particulate phases of wastewater, and in sewage sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods, 6(5), 1341–1349. 

Bach, C., Boiteux, V., Hemard, J., Colin, A., Rosin, C., Munoz, J.-F., & Dauchy, X. (2016). Simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl iodides, perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, fluorotelomer alcohols, fluorotelomer iodides and fluorotelomer acrylates and methacrylates in water and sediments using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mas. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1448, 98–106. 

Baduel, C., Paxman, C. J., & Mueller, J. F. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 296, 46–53. 

Barber JL, Berger U, Chaemfa C, Huber S, Jahnke A, Temme C, and Jones KC. 2007. Analysis of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances in air samples from Northwest Europe. J Environ Monit 9:530-541.

Bizkarguenaga, E., Zabaleta, I., Prieto, A., Fernandez, L. A., & Zuloaga, O. (2016). Uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester and its degradation products by carrot and lettuce from compost-amended soil. Chemosphere, 152, 309–317.

Blaine AC, Rich CD, Hundal LS, Lau C, Mills MA, Harris KM, and Higgins CP. 2013. Uptake of Perfluoroalkyl Acids into Edible Crops via Land Applied Biosolids: Field and Greenhouse Studies. Environ Sci Technol 47:14062-14069.

Blanco MB, Bejan I, Barnes I, Wiesen P, and Teruel MA. 2009. OH-initiated degradation of unsaturated esters in the atmosphere: kinetics in the temperature range of 287-313 K. J Phys Chem A 113:5958-5965.

Boiteux V, Dauchy X, Rosin C, and Munoz JF. 2012. National screening study on 10 perfluorinated compounds in raw and treated tap water in France. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 63:1-12.

Bossi, R., Vorkamp, K., & Skov, H. (2016). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland. Environmental Pollution, 217, 4–10. 

Brumovský, M., Karásková, P., Borghini, M., Nizzetto, L., Brumovsky, M., Karaskova, P., … Nizzetto, L. (2016). Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Western Mediterranean Sea waters. Chemosphere, 159, 308–316. 

Busch J, Ahrens L, Xie Z, Sturm R, and Ebinghaus R. 2010. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the East Greenland Arctic Ocean. J Environ Monit 12:1242-1246.

Butt CM, Berger U, Bossi R, and Tomy GT. 2010. Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment. Sci Total Environ 408:2936-2965.

Butt CM, Muir DC, and Mabury SA. 2014. Biotransformation pathways of fluorotelomer-based polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:243-267.

Cai M, Xie Z, Moller A, Yin Z, Huang P, Cai M, Yang H, Sturm R, He J, and Ebinghaus R. 2012. Polyfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere along a cruise pathway from the Japan Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Chemosphere 87:989-997.

Campo, J., Masiá, A., Picó, Y., Farré, M., & Barceló, D. (2014). Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in Mediterranean Spanish sewage treatment plants. The Science of the Total Environment, 472, 912–22. 

Capriotti, A. L., Cavaliere, C., Cavazzini, A., Foglia, P., Laganà, A., Piovesana, S., & Samperi, R. (2013). High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of perfluorinated acids in cow milk. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1319, 72–9. 

Carmosini N and Lee LS. 2008. Partitioning of fluorotelomer alcohols to octanol and different sources of dissolved organic carbon. Environ Sci Technol 42:6559-6565.

Cavaliere, C., Capriotti, A. L., Ferraris, F., Foglia, P., Samperi, R., Ventura, S., & Laganà, A. (2016). Multiresidue analysis of endocrine-disrupting compounds and perfluorinated sulfates and carboxylic acids in sediments by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1438, 133–142. 

Chen, H., Reinhard, M., Nguyen, V. T., & Gin, K. Y.-H. (2016). Reversible and irreversible sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by sediments of an urban reservoir. Chemosphere, 144, 1747–1753. 

Chen, X., Zhu, L., Pan, X., Fang, S., Zhang, Y., & Yang, L. (2015). Isomeric specific partitioning behaviors of perfluoroalkyl substances in water dissolved phase, suspended particulate matters and sediments in Liao River Basin and Taihu Lake, China. Water Research, 80, 235–244. 

Clara M, Scheffknecht C, Scharf S, Weiss S, and Gans O. 2008. Emissions of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) from point sources--identification of relevant branches. Water Sci Technol 58:59-66.

Clara M, Gans O, Weiss S, Sanz-Escribano D, Scharf S, and Scheffknecht C. 2009. Perfluorinated alkylated substances in the aquatic environment: an Austrian case study. Water Res 43:4760-4768.

Dasu K, Lee LS, Turco RF, and Nies LF. 2013. Aerobic biodegradation of 8:2 fluorotelomer stearate monoester and 8:2 fluorotelomer citrate triester in forest soil. Chemosphere 91:399-405.

Dauchy X, Boiteux V, Rosin C, and Munoz JF. 2012. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds. Part I: Case study of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89:525-530.

Del Vento S, Halsall C, Gioia R, Jones K, and Dachs J. 2012. Volatile per– and polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the remote atmosphere of the western Antarctic Peninsula: an indirect source of perfluoroalkyl acids to Antarctic waters? Atmospheric Pollution Research 3:450-455.

Dreyer A, Weinberg I, Temme C, and Ebinghaus R. 2009. Polyfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans: evidence for a global distribution. Environ Sci Technol 43:6507-6514.

Dreyer A and Ebinghaus R. 2009. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany. Atmospheric Environment 43:1527-1535.

Dreyer A, Langer V, and Ebinghaus R. 2009. Determination of Octanol-Air Partition Coefficients (KOA) of Fluorotelomer" Acrylates, Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonamids, and Perftuoroalkylsulfonamido Ethanols. J Chem Eng Data 54:3022-3025.

Du, Z., Deng, S., Chen, Y., Wang, B., Huang, J., Wang, Y., & Yu, G. (2015). Removal of perfluorinated carboxylates from washing wastewater of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride using activated carbons and resins. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286, 136–43. 

Ellington JJ, Washington JW, Evans JJ, Jenkins TM, Hafner SC, and Neill MP. 2009. Analysis of fluorotelomer alcohols in soils: optimization of extraction and chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216:5347-5354.

Ellis DA and Mabury SA. 2003. Chemical ionization pathways of polyfluorinated chemicals--a connection to environmental atmospheric processes. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 14:1177-1191.

Ellis DA, Martin JW, Mabury SA, Hurley MD, Andersen MP, and Wallington TJ. 2003. Atmospheric lifetime of fluorotelomer alcohols. Environ Sci Technol 37:3816-3820.

Ellis DA, Martin JW, De Silva AO, Mabury SA, Hurley MD, Sulbaek Andersen MP, and Wallington TJ. 2004. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols: a likely atmospheric source of perfluorinated carboxylic acids. Environ Sci Technol 38:3316-3321.

Ericson Jogsten I, Nadal M, van BB, Lindstrom G, and Domingo JL. 2012. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure. Environ Int 39:172-180.

Ericson I, Domingo JL, Nadal M, Bigas E, Llebaria X, van BB, and Lindstrom G. 2009. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:631-638.

Filipovic, M., & Berger, U. (2015). Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation? Chemosphere, 129, 74–80. 

Filipovic, M., Woldegiorgis, A., Norstrom, K., Bibi, M., Lindberg, M., & Osteras, A.-H. (2015). Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: a case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish. Chemosphere, 129, 39–45. 

Fraser AJ, Webster TF, Watkins DJ, Strynar MJ, Kato K, Calafat AM, Vieira VM, and McClean MD. 2013. Polyfluorinated compounds in dust from homes, offices, and vehicles as predictors of concentrations in office workers' serum. Environ Int 60:128-136.

Gallen, C., Drage, D., Kaserzon, S., Baduel, C., Gallen, M., Banks, A., … Mueller, J. F. (2016). Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 312, 55–64. 

Gebbink, W. A., Berger, U., & Cousins, I. T. (2015). Estimating human exposure to PFOS isomers and PFCA homologues: the relative importance of direct and indirect (precursor) exposure. Environment International, 74, 160–169. 

Gebbink, W. A., Glynn, A., Darnerud, P. O., & Berger, U. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 198, 108–115. 

Gellrich V, Brunn H, and Stahl T. 2013. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mineral water and tap water. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 48:129-135.

Gewurtz SB, Backus SM, De Silva AO, Ahrens L, Armellin A, Evans M, Fraser S, Gledhill M, Guerra P, Harner T, Helm PA, Hung H, Khera N, Kim MG, King M, Lee SC, Letcher RJ, Martin P, Marvin C, McGoldrick DJ, Myers AL, Pelletier M, Pomeroy J, Reiner EJ, Rondeau M, Sauve MC, Sekela M, Shoeib M, Smith DW, Smyth SA, Struger J, Spry D, Syrgiannis J, and Waltho J. 2013. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Canadian environment: multi-media assessment of current status and trends. Environ Int 59:183-200.

Gong, X., Li, B., Liu, Y., Liu, R., & Song, Y. (2015). Pollution levels and ecological risk assessment of typical perfluorinated compounds in riverine water and sediments of Hun River and Daliao River Watershed. Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 35(7), 2177–2184. 

Gong, X., Liu, R., Li, B., Song, Y., & Liu, Y. (2016). Perfluoroalkyl acids in Daliao River system of northeast China: determination, distribution and ecological risk. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(6). 

González-Gaya, B., Dachs, J., Roscales, J. L., Caballero, G., & Jiménez, B. (2014). Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(22), 13076–13084. 

Guerra, P., Kim, M., Kinsman, L., Ng, T., Alaee, M., & Smyth, S. A. (2014). Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 272, 148–54. 

Guo, C., Zhang, Y., Zhao, X., Du, P., Liu, S., Lv, J., … Xu, J. (2015). Distribution, source characterization and inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in Taihu Lake, China. Chemosphere, 127, 201–207. 

He N, Zhou M, and Sun H. 2013. Biodegradation of 6-2 fluorotelomer alcohol in activated sludge. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae 33:383-388.

He, P., Zhang, H., Li, J., He, L., Luo, J., Liu, G., … Cui, X. (2016). [Residue Characteristics of Perfluorinated Compounds in the Atmosphere of Shenzhen]. Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 37(4), 1240–1247.

Hellsing, M. S., Josefsson, S., Hughes, A. V, & Ahrens, L. (2016). Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances to two types of minerals. Chemosphere, 159, 385–391. 

Houde M, De Silva AO, Muir DC, and Letcher RJ. 2011. Monitoring of perfluorinated compounds in aquatic biota: an updated review. Environ Sci Technol 45:7962-7973.

Houtz, E. F., Sutton, R., Park, J.-S., & Sedlak, M. (2016). Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in wastewater: Significance of unknown precursors, manufacturing shifts, and likely AFFF impacts. Water Research, 95, 142–149. 

Jahnke A, Ahrens L, Ebinghaus R, and Temme C. 2007. Urban versus remote air concentrations of fluorotelomer alcohols and other polyfluorinated alkyl substances in Germany. Environ Sci Technol 41:745-752.

Jiang, W., Zhang, Y., Yang, L., Chu, X., & Zhu, L. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer analysis in the commercial PFOS and PFOA products in China. Chemosphere, 127, 180–187. 

Karaskova, P., Venier, M., Melymuk, L., Becanova, J., Vojta, S., Prokes, R., … Klánová, J. (2016). Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America. Environment International, 94, 315–324. 

Kim MH, Wang N, McDonald T, and Chu KH. 2012. Biodefluorination and biotransformation of fluorotelomer alcohols by two alkane-degrading Pseudomonas strains. Biotechnol Bioeng 109:3041-3048.

Kim MH, Wang N, and Chu KH. 2013. 6:2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH) biodegradation by multiple microbial species under different physiological conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnology, 98(4), 1831–40. 

Kim S-K. 2008. Environmental Distribution and Fate of Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) as Emerging POPs: Physico-Chemical Properties, Emission, Contamination Level, Inter-phase Distribution and Long-Range Transport. J Environ Toxicol 23:143-164.

Krusic PJ, Marchione AA, Davidson F, Kaiser MA, Kao CP, Richardson RE, Botelho M, Waterland RL, and Buck RC. 2005. Vapor pressure and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in fluorotelomer alcohols. J Phys Chem A 109:6232-6241.

Lai, S., Song, J., Song, T., Huang, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y., … Xie, Z. (2016). Neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere over the northern South China Sea. Environmental Pollution, 214, 449–455. 

Langer V, Dreyer A, and Ebinghaus R. 2010. Polyfluorinated compounds in residential and nonresidential indoor air. Environ Sci Technol 44:8075-8081.

Lasier PJ, Washington JW, Hassan SM, and Jenkins TM. 2011. Perfluorinated chemicals in surface waters and sediments from northwest Georgia, USA, and their bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:2194-2201.

Lee H, D'eon J, and Mabury SA. 2010. Biodegradation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphates as a source of perfluorinated acids to the environment. Environ Sci Technol 44:3305-3310.

Leui YD, Wania F, Mathers D, and Mabury SA. 2004. Determination of Vapor Pressures, Octanol-Air, and Water-Air Partition Coefficients for Polyfluorinated Sulfonamide, Sulfonamidoethanols, and Telomer Alcohols. J Chem Eng Data 49:1013-1022.

Li B, Danon-Schaffer M, Li L, Ikonomou M, and Grace J. 2012. Occurrence of PFCs and PBDEs in landfill leachates from across canada. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:3365-3372.

Lin AY, Panchangam SC, and Ciou PS. 2010. High levels of perfluorochemicals in Taiwan's wastewater treatment plants and downstream rivers pose great risk to local aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere 80:1167-1174.

Lin, A. Y.-C., Panchangam, S. C., Tsai, Y.-T., & Yu, T.-H. (2014). Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in the aquatic environment as found in science park effluent, river water, rainwater, sediments, and biotissues. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(5), 3265–3275. 

Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Delinsky AD, Nakayama SF, McMillan L, Libelo EL, Neill M, and Thomas L. 2011. Application of WWTP biosolids and resulting perfluorinated compound contamination of surface and well water in Decatur, Alabama, USA. Environ Sci Technol 45:8015-8021.

Liou JS, Szostek B, DeRito CM, and Madsen EL. 2010. Investigating the biodegradability of perfluorooctanoic acid. Chemosphere 80:176-183.

Liu, B., Zhang, H., Xie, L., Li, J., Wang, X., Zhao, L., … Yang, B. (2015). Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The Science of the Total Environment, 524–525, 1–7. 

Liu, C., & Liu, J. (2016). Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 212, 230–237.
Liu J and Lee LS. 2007. Effect of fluorotelomer alcohol chain length on aqueous solubility and sorption by soils. Environ Sci Technol 41:5357-5362.

Liu J, Wang N, Buck RC, Wolstenholme BW, Folsom PW, Sulecki LM, and Bellin CA. 2010. Aerobic biodegradation of [14C] 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in a flow-through soil incubation system. Chemosphere 80:716-723.

Liu J, Wang N, Szostek B, Buck RC, Panciroli PK, Folsom PW, Sulecki LM, and Bellin CA. 2010. 6-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biodegradation in soil and mixed bacterial culture. Chemosphere 78:437-444.

Liu J and Mejia AS. 2013. Microbial degradation of polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the environment: a review. Environ Int 61:98-114.

Liu W, Takahashi S, Sakuramachi Y, Harada KH, and Koizumi A. 2013. Polyfluorinated telomers in indoor air of Japanese houses. Chemosphere 90:1672-1677.

Liu, X., Guo, Z., Folk, E. E., & Roache, N. F. (2015). Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment. Chemosphere, 129, 81–86. 

Liu, Y., Jiang, Q., Han, M., Zhao, X., & Guo, R. (2015). Contamination profiles of perfluorinated substances in surface sediments of Hongfeng Lake Basin. Research of Environmental Sciences, 28(4), 517–523. 

Llorca, M., Farré, M., Karapanagioti, H. K., & Barceló, D. (2014). Levels and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in beached plastic pellets and sediments collected from Greece. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 87(1–2), 286–91. 

Llorca M, Farre M, Pico Y, Muller J, Knepper TP, and Barcelo D. 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci Total Environ 431:139-150.

Llorca M, Farre M, Tavano MS, Alonso B, Koremblit G, and Barcelo D. 2012. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica. Environ Pollut 163:158-166.

Loewen M, Halldorson T, Wang F, and Tomy G. 2005. Fluorotelomer carboxylic acids and PFOS in rainwater from an urban center in Canada. Environ Sci Technol 39:2944-2951.

Lorenzo, M., Campo, J., Farré, M., Pérez, F., Picó, Y., & Barceló, D. (2016). Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). The Science of the Total Environment, 540, 191–9. 

Lu, Z., Song, L., Zhao, Z., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Yang, H., … Giesy, J. P. (2015). Occurrence and trends in concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters of eastern China. Chemosphere, 119, 820–827. 

MacInnis, J. J., VandenBoer, T. C., & Young, C. J. (2016). Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods. The Analyst, 141(12), 3765–3775. 

Mahmoud MA, Karrman A, Oono S, Harada KH, and Koizumi A. 2009. Polyfluorinated telomers in precipitation and surface water in an urban area of Japan. Chemosphere 74:467-472.

Mak YL, Taniyasu S, Yeung LW, Lu G, Jin L, Yang Y, Lam PK, Kannan K, and Yamashita N. 2009. Perfluorinated compounds in tap water from China and several other countries. Environ Sci Technol 43:4824-4829.

McKenzie, E. R., Siegrist, R. L., McCray, J. E., & Higgins, C. P. (2016). The influence of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and chemical oxidant application on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) fate and transport. Water Research, 92, 199–207. 

Meng, J., Wang, T., Wang, P., Zhang, Y., Li, Q., Lu, Y., & Giesy, J. P. (2015). Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China? Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 199, 102–9. 

Moreta, C., & Tena, M. T. (2014). Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1355, 211–8. 

Mukerji, P., Rae, J. C., Buck, R. C., & O’Connor, J. C. (2015). Oral repeated-dose systemic and reproductive toxicity of 6:2 FLUOROTELOMER alcohol in mice. Toxicology Reports, 2, 130–143. 

Muller CE, Gerecke AC, Bogdal C, Wang Z, Scheringer M, and Hungerbuhler K. 2012. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): I. Day-night patterns of air concentrations in summer in Zurich, Switzerland. Environ Pollut 169:196-203.

Oono S, Matsubara E, Harada KH, Takagi S, Hamada S, Asakawa A, Inoue K, Watanabe I, and Koizumi A. 2008. Survey of airborne polyfluorinated telomers in Keihan area, Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 80:102-106.

Oono S, Harada KH, Mahmoud MA, Inoue K, and Koizumi A. 2008. Current levels of airborne polyfluorinated telomers in Japan. Chemosphere 73:932-937.

Pan, C.-G., Ying, G.-G., Zhao, J.-L., Liu, Y.-S., Jiang, Y.-X., & Zhang, Q.-Q. (2014). Spatiotemporal distribution and mass loadings of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Yangtze River of China. The Science of the Total Environment, 493, 580–7. 

Park, S., Lee, L. S., Medina, V. F., Zull, A., & Waisner, S. (2016). Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of PFOA, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, and PFOS under conditions suitable for in-situ groundwater remediation. Chemosphere, 145, 376–83. 

Parsons JR, Saez M, Dolfing J, and de VP. 2008. Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 196:53-71.

Perkola N and Sainio P. 2013. Survey of perfluorinated alkyl acids in Finnish effluents, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20:7979-7987.

Piekarz AM, Primbs T, Field JA, Barofsky DF, and Simonich S. 2007. Semivolatile fluorinated organic compounds in Asian and western U.S. air masses. Environ Sci Technol 41:8248-8255.

Pisarenko, A. N., Marti, E. J., Gerrity, D., Peller, J. R., & Dickenson, E. R. V. (2015). Effects of molecular ozone and hydroxyl radical on formation of N-nitrosamines and perfluoroalkyl acids during ozonation of treated wastewaters. Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, 1(5), 668–678. 

Post GB, Cohn PD, and Cooper KR. 2012. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: a critical review of recent literature. Environ Res 116:93-117.

Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, and Korzeniowski SH. 2006. Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates. Environ Sci Technol 40:32-44.

Rankin, K., Lee, H., Tseng, P. J., & Mabury, S. A. (2014). Investigating the biodegradability of a fluorotelomer-based acrylate polymer in a soil-plant microcosm by indirect and direct analysis, 48(21), 12783–12790. 

Rankin, K., Mabury, S. A., Jenkins, T. M., & Washington, J. W. (2016). A North American and global survey of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface soils: Distribution patterns and mode of occurrence. Chemosphere, 161, 333–341. 

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Nilsson H, Karrman A, Rotander A, van BB, Lindstrom G, and Westberg H. 2010. Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood? Environ Sci Technol 44:7717-7722.

Nilsson H, Karrman A, Rotander A, van BB, Lindstrom G, and Westberg H. 2013. Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans. Environ Int 51:8-12.

Nilsson H, Karrman A, Rotander A, van BB, Lindstrom G, and Westberg H. 2013. Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions. Environ Sci Process Impacts 15:814-822.

Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, Butenhoff JL, and Zobel LR. 2007. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate,perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate inretired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 115:1298-1305.

Olsen GW, Ellefson ME, Mair DC, Church TR, Goldberg CL, Herron RM, Medhdizadehkashi Z, Nobiletti JB, Rios JA, Reagen WK, and Zobel LR. 2011. Analysis of a homologous series of perfluorocarboxylates from American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2001 and 2006. Environ Sci Technol 45:8022-8029.

Olsen GW, Lange CC, Ellefson ME, Mair DC, Church TR, Goldberg CL, Herron RM, Medhdizadehkashi Z, Nobiletti JB, Rios JA, Reagen WK, and Zobel LR. 2012. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl concentrations in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2010. Environ Sci Technol 46:6330-6338.

Routti, H., Krafft, B. A., Herzke, D., Eisert, R., & Oftedal, O. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl substances detected in the world’s southernmost marine mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii). Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 197, 62–67. 

Vestergren R, Berger U, Glynn A, and Cousins IT. 2012. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids for the Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Environ Int 49:120-127.

Wang J, Zhang Y, Zhang F, Yeung LW, Taniyasu S, Yamazaki E, Wang R, Lam PK, Yamashita N, and Dai J. 2013. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis). Environ Pollut 179:61-67.

Wilhelm M, Holzer J, Dobler L, Rauchfuss K, Midasch O, Kraft M, Angerer J, and Wiesmuller G. 2009. Preliminary observations on perfluorinated compounds in plasma samples (1977-2004) of young German adults from an area with perfluorooctanoate-contaminated drinking water. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:142-145.

Yeung LW and Mabury SA. 2013. Bioconcentration of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). Environ Sci Technol 47:12505-12513.

Yoo H, Yamashita N, Taniyasu S, Lee KT, Jones PD, Newsted JL, Khim JS, and Giesy JP. 2009. Perfluoroalkyl acids in marine organisms from Lake Shihwa, Korea. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:552-560.

Zhang T, Sun H, Lin Y, Qin X, Zhang Y, Geng X, and Kannan K. 2013. Distribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in matched samples from pregnant women and carbon chain length related maternal transfer. Environ Sci Technol 47:7974-7981.

Zhou, Z., Shi, Y., Vestergren, R., Wang, T., Liang, Y., & Cai, Y. (2014). Highly elevated serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in fishery employees from Tangxun lake, china. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(7), 3864–74. 

Zhu, P., Ling, X., Liu, W., Kong, L., & Yao, Y. (2016). Simple and fast determination of perfluorinated compounds in Taihu Lake by SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1031, 61–67.

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Toxicology/Risk Assessment

Andersen ME, Butenhoff JL, Chang SC, Farrar DG, Kennedy GL, Jr., Lau C, Olsen GW, Seed J, and Wallace KB. 2008. Perfluoroalkyl acids and related chemistries--toxicokinetics and modes of action. Toxicol Sci 102:3-14.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2009. Toxicological Profile for Perfluoroalkyls. Atlanta, Georgia.

Barmentlo, S. H., Stel, J. M., Van Doorn, M., Eschauzier, C., De Voogt, P., & Kraak, M. H. S. (2015). Acute and chronic toxicity of short chained perfluoroalkyl substances to Daphnia magna. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 198, 47–53. 

Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E. C., Long, M., Fredslund, S. O., Bossi, R., & Olsen, J. (2014). Breast cancer risk after exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Danish women: a case–control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cancer Causes and Control, 25(11), 1439–1448. 

Borg D, Lund BO, Lindquist NG, and Hakansson H. 2013. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population. Environ Int 59:112-123.

Butenhoff JL, Gaylor DW, Moore JA, Olsen GW, Rodricks J, Mandel JH, and Zobel LR. 2004. Characterization of risk for general population exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 39:363-380.

Chengelis CP, Kirkpatrick JB, Myers NR, Shinohara M, Stetson PL, and Sved DW. 2009. Comparison of the toxicokinetic behavior of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and nonafluorobutane-1-sulfonic acid (PFBS) in cynomolgus monkeys and rats. Reprod Toxicol 27:400-406.

Chengelis CP, Kirkpatrick JB, Radovsky A, and Shinohara M. 2009. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations). Reprod Toxicol 27:342-351.

D'Hollander W, de VP, De CW, and Bervoets L. 2010. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 208:179-215.

Domingo JL, Jogsten IE, Eriksson U, Martorell I, Perello G, Nadal M, and Bavel B. 2012. Human dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in Catalonia, Spain. Temporal trend. Food Chem 135:1575-1582.

Domingo JL. 2012. Health risks of dietary exposure to perfluorinated compounds. Environ Int 40:187-195.

Eriksen KT, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sorensen M, Roursgaard M, Loft S, and Moller P. 2010. Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells. Mutat Res 700:39-43.

Fan, H., Ducatman, A., & Zhang, J. (2014). Perfluorocarbons and Gilbert syndrome (phenotype) in the C8 Health Study Population. Environmental Research, 135, 70–5. 

Gannon SA, Johnson T, Nabb DL, Serex TL, Buck RC, and Loveless SE. 2011. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [1-(1)(4)C]-perfluorohexanoate ([(1)(4)C]-PFHx) in rats and mice. Toxicology 283:55-62.

Genuis SJ, Birkholz D, Ralitsch M, and Thibault N. 2010. Human detoxification of perfluorinated compounds. Public Health 124:367-375.

Gorrochategui, E., Perez-Albaladejo, E., Casas, J., Lacorte, S., & Porte, C. (2014). Perfluorinated chemicals: differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 277(2), 124–130. 

Han X, Nabb DL, Mingoia RT, and Yang CH. 2007. Determination of xenobiotic intrinsic clearance in freshly isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat and its application in bioaccumulation assessment. Environ Sci Technol 41:3269-3276.

Hu, J., Li, J., Wang, J., Zhang, A., & Dai, J. (2014). Synergistic effects of perfluoroalkyl acids mixtures with J-shaped concentration-responses on viability of a human liver cell line. Chemosphere, 96, 81–88. 

Iwai H, Hoberman AM. 2014. Oral (Gavage) Combined Developmental and Perinatal/Postnatal Reproduction Toxicity Study of Ammonium Salt of Perfluorinated Hexanoic Acid in Mice.  Int J Toxicol. 33(3):219-237. 

Kim, D.-H., Kim, U.-J., Kim, H.-Y., Choi, S.-D., & Oh, J.-E. (2016). Perfluoroalkyl substances in serum from South Korean infants with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy infants – Its relationship with thyroid hormones. Environmental Research, 147, 399–404. 

Klaunig JE, Shinohara M, Iwai H, Chengelis CP, Kirkpatrick JB, Wang Z, Bruner RH. 2015. Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in Sprague-Dawley rats.  Toxicol Pathol. 2015 Feb;43(2):209-220. 

Kops M. 2012. Human Risks of Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs): a Review of the Literature. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Kovarova J and Svobodova Z. 2008. Perfluorinated compounds: occurrence and risk profile. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 29:599-608.

Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, and Seed J. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366-394.

Loveless SE, Slezak B, Serex T, Lewis J, Mukerji P, O'Connor JC, Donner EM, Frame SR, Korzeniowski SH, and Buck RC. 2009. Toxicological evaluation of sodium perfluorohexanoate. Toxicology 264:32-44.

Mukerji, P., Rae, J. C., Buck, R. C., & O’Connor, J. C. (2015). Oral repeated-dose systemic and reproductive toxicity of 6:2 FLUOROTELOMER alcohol in mice. Toxicology Reports, 2, 130–143. 

Mulkiewicz E, Jastorff B, Skladanowski AC, Kleszczynski K, and Stepnowski P. 2007. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids using eukaryotic cell lines, bacteria and enzymatic assays. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 23:279-285.

Numata, J., Kowalczyk, J., Adolphs, J., Ehlers, S., Schafft, H., Fuerst, P., … Greiner, M. (2014). Toxicokinetics of Seven Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonic and Carboxylic Acids in Pigs Fed a Contaminated Diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(28), 6861–6870. 

O'Connor JC, Munley SM, Serex TL, Buck RC. Evaluation of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in rats. 2014.  Toxicology 317:6-16.

Olsen GW, Butenhoff JL, and Zobel LR. 2009. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and human fetal development: an epidemiologic review with clinical and toxicological perspectives. Reprod Toxicol 27:212-230.

Phillips MM, nglasan-Panlilio MJ, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, and Sibley PK. 2007. Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids. Environ Sci Technol 41:7159-7163.

Rand, A. A., & Mabury, S. A. (2014). Protein binding associated with exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in rats. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(4), 2421–2429. 

Rantakokko, P., Männistö, V., Airaksinen, R., Koponen, J., Viluksela, M., Kiviranta, H., & Pihlajamäki, J. (2015). Persistent organic pollutants and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients: A cohort study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 14(1). 

Riebe, R. A., Falk, S., Georgii, S., Brunn, H., Failing, K., & Stahl, T. (2016). Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Livers of Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) from Germany and Austria. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71(1), 7–15. 

Ruan T, Sulecki LM, Wolstenholme BW, Jiang G, Wang N, Buck RC. 2014.  6:2 Fluorotelomer iodide in vitro metabolism by rat liver microsomes: comparison with [1,2-(14)C] 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol.  Chemosphere. 112:34-41. 

Russell MH, Himmelstein MW, Buck RC. 2015. Inhalation and oral toxicokinetics of 6:2 FTOH and its metabolites in mammals. Chemosphere. 120:328-35.

Russell MH, Nilsson H, and Buck RC. 2013. Elimination kinetics of perfluorohexanoic acid in humans and comparison with mouse, rat and monkey. Chemosphere 93:2419-2425.

Serex T, Anand S, Munley S, Donner EM, Frame SR, Buck RC, Loveless SE. Toxicological evaluation of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol. 2014. Toxicology 319:1-9. 

Sheng, N., Li, J., Liu, H., Zhang, A., & Dai, J. (2016). Interaction of perfluoroalkyl acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein. Archives of Toxicology, 90(1), 217–227. 

Stahl T, Mattern D, and Brunn H. 2011. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds. Environmental Sciences Europe 23:38.

Wang, Y., Niu, J., Zhang, L., & Shi, J. (2014). Toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) towards the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The Science of the Total Environment, 491–492, 266–70. 

Wolf, C. J., Rider, C. V, Lau, C., & Abbott, B. D. (2014). Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation. Toxicology, 316, 43–54. 

Zhou, Y., Hu, L.-W., Qian, Z. M., Chang, J.-J., King, C., Paul, G., … Dong, G.-H. (2016). Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status. Environment International, 94, 189–195. 

Zhu, Y., Qin, X.-D., Zeng, X.-W., Paul, G., Morawska, L., Su, M.-W., … Dong, G.-H. (2016). Associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acid levels with T-helper cell-specific cytokines in children: By gender and asthma status. Science of the Total Environment, 559, 166–173. 

Zushi Y, Hogarh JN, and Masunaga S. 2012. Progress and perspective of perfluorinated compound risk assessment and management in various countries and institutes. Clean Techn Environ Policy 14:9-20.

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Ding G and Peijnenburg WJGM. 2013. Physicochemical Properties and Aquatic Toxicity of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 43:598-678.

Giesy JP, Naile JE, Khim JS, Jones PD, and Newsted JL. 2010. Aquatic toxicology of perfluorinated chemicals. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 202:1-52.

Han X, Nabb DL, Mingoia RT, and Yang CH. 2007. Determination of xenobiotic intrinsic clearance in freshly isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat and its application in bioaccumulation assessment. Environ Sci Technol 41:3269-3276.

Hoke RA, Ferrell BD, Ryan T, Sloman TL, Green JW, Nabb DL, Mingoia R, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH. 2015. Aquatic hazard, bioaccumulation and screening risk assessment for 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate. Chemosphere  128:258-65.

Latala A, Nedzi M, and Stepnowski P. 2009. Acute toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids towards the Baltic microalgae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 28:167-171.

Liu W, Chen S, Quan X, and Jin YH. 2008. Toxic effect of serial perfluorosulfonic and perfluorocarboxylic acids on the membrane system of a freshwater alga measured by flow cytometry. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1597-1604.

Liu, W.-X., He, W., Qin, N., Kong, X.-Z., He, Q.-S., Yang, B., … Xu, F.-L. (2015). Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu). Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 200, 24–34. 

Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, and Muir DC. 2003. Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of perfluorinated acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem 22:196-204.

Wang J, Zhang Y, Zhang F, Yeung LW, Taniyasu S, Yamazaki E, Wang R, Lam PK, Yamashita N, and Dai J. 2013. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis). Environ Pollut 179:61-67.

Wang Y, Yeung LW, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Lam JC, and Lam PK. 2008. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and other fluorochemicals in waterbird eggs from south China. Environ Sci Technol 42:8146-8151.

Suja F, Pramanik BK, and Zain SM. 2009. Contamination, bioaccumulation and toxic effects of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the water environment: a review paper. Water Sci Technol 60:1533-1544.

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Boethling RS and Nabholz JV. 1997. Environmental Assessment of Polymers under the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act. In: Ecological Assessment of Polymers Strategies for Product Stewardship and Regulatory Programs, eds Hamilton JD and Sutcliffe R, 187-234. Van Nostrand Reinhld.

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